AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Ed. Standards engineers typically are required to follow. Available for purchase from American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). AASHTO supports the use of on-road bicycling facilities in many situations, even when there is a sidepath next to the road; see here for some relevant fair-use excerpts on that topic. The various types of bicycling facilities can “supplement,” and “should not be used to preclude” each other.
AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Bicycle Facilities Rails-to-Trails Conservancy posts this free downloadable DRAFT version of AASHTO’s guide, dated February 2010, on their web site
Accessible Shared Streets: Notable Practices and Considerations for Accommodating Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities This Federal Highway Administration document addresses a specific type of shared street user–pedestrians with vision disabilities. It reviews notable practices and considerations for accommodating pedestrians with vision disabilities on shared streets. This document is not a comprehensive guide to shared street design and planning.
Achieving Multimodal Networks: Applying Design Flexibility and Reducing Conflicts This Federal Highway Administration publication is intended to be a resource for practitioners seeking to build multimodal transportation networks. It highlights ways that planners and designers can apply the design flexibility found in current national design guidance to address common roadway design challenges and barriers. It focuses on reducing multimodal conflicts and achieving connected networks so that walking and bicycling are safe, comfortable, and attractive options for people of all ages and abilities.
Best Design Practices for Walking and Bicycling in Michigan Free download from the Michigan Dept. of Transportation. Practices not in the MMUTCD require Federal Highway Administration approval.
Bicycle and Pedestrian Terminology Definitions and illustrations of essential terms used in non-motorized planning; from MDOT. Explains difference between commonly misunderstood terms such as “bike lane” vs. “bike route.”
Bicycles and the Law: Michigan Compiled Laws The League of Michigan Bicyclists presents relevant laws in the form of answers to common questions.
“Bike Friendly” Award Criteria: League of American Bicyclists Many bike friendly awards can be earned: communities, businesses, universities and even states are eligible; this LAB page contains links to the application forms, which contain criteria. Click here for an overview.
Bike Route Wayfinding Signage and Markings System Section of larger Urban Bikeway Design Guide that applies specifically to bike routes. From the National Association of City Transportation Officials, but refers to other standards from AASHTO, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, with an especially useful set of links to comprehensive bike route design guides adopted by various US states and cities.
Bikeway Selection Guide This document is a resource to help transportation practitioners consider and make informed trade-off decisions relating to the selection of bikeway types; from the Federal Highway Administration.
BFK Route Planning Guidelines 121111 web version Preliminary guidelines for BFK’s route planning volunteers.
Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares Free download from AASHTO. Requires adding it to your “cart.”
Developing Safety Plans: A Manual For Local Rural Road Owners “In 2009, 56 percent of highway deaths occurred on rural roads and the fatality rate was 2.6 times higher in rural areas than in urban areas.” This FWHA guide can help road agencies with jurisdiction in rural areas develop local plans to integrate “the 4 E’s of Safety – engineering, education, enforcement and emergency services.”
Establishing Realistic Speed Limits Guide to the reasons for setting realistic speed limits and the process involved for doing so. This document may be of special interest to jurisdictions such as townships, which must work with other authorities to change and post established speed limits.
Guidebook for Measuring Multimodal Network Connectivity This resource focuses on pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity and provides information on incorporating connectivity measures into state, metropolitan, and local transportation planning processes; from the FHWA.
Guidelines for Stakeholder Engagement – MDOT The Michigan Department of Transportation’s recommended process for getting input from those most likely to be impacted by, or have useful information about, MDOT’s plans and projects. “Stakeholder engagement is a key aspect of practicing Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS).”
How to Become an Even More Bike Friendly University-College-Community College How to become a more bike friendly institution of higher learning. Drawn from the League of American Bicyclists’ 2012 Bike Friendly University Award application.
Illustration of Approved Bicycle Signs – FHWA Scroll for commentary and additional useful links on the Federal Highway Administration’s site
Institute of Transportation Engineers Browse site to find Designing Walkable Thoroughfares guide.
Kalamazoo Area Transportation Study A key central planning authority in our greater community; KATS is our Metropolitan Planning Organization.
MDOT Letter of Support for “Map 7” Commuter Bike Route Signs Letter dated June 9, 2017 outlining general principles that will guide MDOT’s signs on roads in their jurisdiction within the Kalamazoo Area Transportation Study’s metropolitan planning organization.
MDOT Traffic Sign Design, Placement, and Application Guidelines “This manual provides guidance to administrative, engineering, and technical staff.” Includes sections on signing priorities and principles, among many others. Dated March 2017.
MDOT State Long Range Transportation Plan 2005-2030: Nonmotorized Technical Report Comprehensive report covering the types of non-motorized facilities under their jurisdiction, user profiles, benefits, funding sources and their legal context, among many others.
MDOT U.S. Bicycle Route Sign Guidance – Unofficial Document used by MDOT when considering how to sign the U.S. Bicycle Routes that are being set up across the State of Michigan; such routes use the M1-9 / M1-9 alternate sign.
Michigan Compiled Law 247.660k Covers mandates and details related to expenditure on non-motorized facilities, namely as “…an amount equal to at least 1% of the amount distributed to the state transportation department or the county, city, or village, whichever is appropriate, from the Michigan transportation fund…”.
Michigan Compiled Law 247.660p Covers mandatory relationships among governmental units, the State Transportation Commission, road commissions and road agencies related to Complete Streets policies, and the need to take them into account on certain road and right of way projects.
Michigan Complete Streets Coalition Group working to help ensure streets accommodate needs of non-motorized and motorized users.
Michigan Design Manual (for Road Design) Chapter 12.2 (2013) presents “Bicycle Facilities,” covering Attorney General Opinions, References, Types of Bicycle Facilities, Non-Motorized Transportation Project Review, Agreements-Shared Use Paths, and Design Features for Shared Use and On-Road Facilities.
Michigan Legislature – Act 283 of 1909 – Chapter IV Covers county road law, including among other contents: the board of county road commissioners (election or appointment), regular term, benefits, powers and duties.
Michigan Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Engineers must follow these standards in Michigan (aka, MMUTCD); download sections of most interest using this menu or see here for the entire manual (33+MB). See below for link to MMUTCD Part 9, which pertains to Bicycle Facilities.
National Organization of City Transportation Officials Browse site to find free downloadable Urban Bikeway Design Guide. NACTO’s guides contain a number of innovative designs not yet formally adopted by AASHTO, yet may be considered and potentially used as per published guidance by FHWA in August 2013.
Nonmotorized Data Collection and Monitoring Program Guide and Implementation Plan prepared by Toole Design with the University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center for MDOT. Description of a project that is currently underway. February 2019.
Protected (and Buffered) Bicycle Lanes: Detroit, Chicago, New York and Vancouver (CA). Our area is actively exploring the use of protected and buffered bike lanes to increase safety and feelings of security on some key arteries. These articles from a variety of resources define and describe examples of these relatively new but increasingly popular bicycling facilities, and where they make sense to include in the broader network.
Public Participation Plan In Transportation Decision Making This document outlines the process by which input is obtained from stakeholders in the type of projects funded through the Kalamazoo Area Transportation Study. It is updated on a regular basis, so this link will change over time; this is the 2017 edition. “Realizing an efficient transportation system can only come from a true understanding of citizens’ diverse and far-ranging needs, KATS is committed to involving and collaborating with the region’s citizens in a public involvement process that is grounded in mutual problem solving and understanding.”
Ride With GPS Quick Tips Brief tips on how to use the online route planning tool “Ride With GPS,” which BFK is using to help ensure a common platform for the creation, access, and sharing of route planning files.
Road Commission of Kalamazoo County Has jurisdiction over much of Kalamazoo county’s road system that is not under the jurisdiction of cities and villages with so-called Act 51 authority.
Road Diet Informational Guide This guide presents one method for improving safety. Improving safety is a top priority for the U.S. Department of Transportation. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) remains committed to reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries on our Nation’s roadways through the use of proven safety countermeasures, including Road Diets.
School Area Traffic Control Guidelines MDOT’s basic principles and standards to be followed in design, application, installation, and maintenance of all traffic control devices and other controls required for the special pedestrian conditions of school areas.
Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide This Federal Highway Administration guide outlines planning considerations
for separated bike lanes (also sometimes called “cycle tracks” or “protected bike lanes”) and provides a menu of design options covering typical one and two-way scenarios.
Shared Use Path Level of Service Calculator Users Guide The Shared Use Path Level of Service Guide is a spreadsheet for analyzing aspects of the quality of service provided by shared-use paths of various widths that accommodate various travel mode splits. Shared-use paths are paved, off-road facilities designed for travel by a variety of non-motorized users including bicyclists, pedestrians, skaters, runners, and others. The document describes in detail the input data needed to begin using the method, provides step-by-step instructions, and provides example applications of the new method. The spreadsheet download is at the very bottom of this page, here.
Sidepath Application Criteria Development for Bicycle Use Explores “Michigan residents’ bicycle facility preferences and attitudes and behaviors toward bicycling, and to conduct primary research to understand bicycle crash characteristics along sidepaths in the service of better sidepath design guidance.” (MDOT, 2018)
Sidepath Intersection and Crossing Treatment Guide This MDOT Guide “lays out a straightforward process and provides guidance for integrating highquality bikeways into a proposed roadway project or as a stand-alone project.” (2018)
Southwest Michigan Bikeway – Letters of Support Letters of support for signing the Southwest Michigan Bikeway using the M1-8a bike route sign and associated destination/direction/distance and turn arrow signs recommended by the Kalamazoo Region Bike Route Committee as received from the: City of Kalamazoo, Village of Paw Paw, Village of Vicksburg, City of Portage, Discover Kalamazoo, the Kalamazoo Bicycle Club, Trikats, Paul Runnels, Ed Sackley, Jennifer Johnson, Open Roads Bike Program, the Chain Gang Bicycle Club and Marc Irwin.
Michigan Vehicle Code Section 257.627 Speed limits Governs speed limits and how they may be set. A 2017 update to the code allows speed limits to be set based on the number of Vehicle Access Points (VAP) within a given stretch. For example, the new law permits speed limits to be set at “35 miles per hour on a highway segment with not less than 45 vehicular access points but no more than 49 vehicular access points within 1/2 mile.”
Michigan Vehicle Code Section 257.628 Maximum or minimum speed limit; determination; petition by township board; modified speed limit; public record of traffic control order; speed limit signs, signals, or devices; violation as civil infraction; definitions. Governs speed limits on stretches under the jurisdiction of county road commissions.
State Transportation Commission Policy on Complete Streets Michigan’s policy statement. MDOT has adopted “Complete Streets” and now takes it into account when modifying and building elements under its jurisdiction. Local adoption is optional; it varies by jurisdiction and the degree to which Complete Streets vision is codified.
Standard Highway Signs and Markings The Federal Highway Administration has developed design details for these signs and markings. Links on this page lead to detailed sign layout specifications available in PDF and EPS formats.
Streetmix – An interactive online visual planning tool. Users may alter a graphic depiction of a street cross section to include various elements that might comprise a mix of lanes and uses for all types of users including options for adding bike, pedestrian, bus, and other multi-modal uses and elements (such as landscaping). Immediate feedback as adjustments are made among use types, lane widths, transit options, shelters, trees, planters, signs, etc.
Traffic Control Devices For Bicycle Facilities (MMUTDC Part 9) Contains key standards, options, guidance and supporting references for the traffic control devices for bicycle facilities in the State of Michigan as of 2019. Excellent figures throughout present sign and lane markings, illustrate placement. The “Bikes May Use Full Lane” (R4-11) sign is now included in the MMUTCD. Be aware that other portions of the MMUTCD are cross-referenced in this section and that updates and error corrections to the Manual may also apply. A complete list of updates as of June 2020 may be found here.
Transportation Design Guidelines: City of Vancouver (Canada) The City of Vancouver has documented 10 rules of thumb to keep in mind when designing bicycling facilities it classes as “AAA,” namely, those designed to make cycling safe, convenient, comfortable and fun for all ages and abilities, including families with children, seniors, and new riders.
Van Buren County Road Commission Has jurisdiction over much of Van Buren county’s road system that is not otherwise under the jurisdiction of cities and villages with so-called Act 51 authority.