Costs, Benefits & Statistics

An Economic Impact Study of Bicycling in Arizona   Arizona Department of Transportation’s brief summary of findings with links to executive summary and full final report dated June 2013.

A Summary of a Comprehensive Evaluation of Pedestrian and Bicycle Crashes and Causes in Michigan   Prepared by the Michigan Office of Highway Safety Planning for the Transportation Research Center for Livable Communities, Western Michigan University dated February 29, 2016.

Bicycle … crash risks and liability exposure: evidence from the research literature  “The evidence that bicycling on sidewalks and similar facilities is more hazardous than bicycling on streets is overwhelming.”  Graphic summary of the widely used “Relative Danger Index” comparing different types of bike facilities and bikeways (multi-use paths, sidewalks, bike routes, bike lanes, etc.), illustrations of where crashes typically occur (with frequencies), plus citations to relevant literature.

Bicycle-Involved Crashes in  Michigan 2014-2018   Comprehensive report provides an analysis of police-reported motor vehicle crashes involving bicycles on public roadways in Michigan from 2014 through 2018.   From the Center for the Management of Information for Safe and Sustainable Transportation, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Cost Estimates for Bicycle Facilities  Unit cost estimates per mile for Class I-III bikeways in Nevada County, CA Master Bicycle Plan (2013) are in Table 6-1 on page 75. Note: Class I = “Bike Path;” Class II – “Bike Lanes;” Class III = “Bike Route.”

Cost Estimates for Bikeways   Brief summary of costs per mile and related measures for Placer County, CA in 2001 begins on page 5-1, within a more complete county-wide / regional plan.

Community and Economic Benefits of Bicycling in Michigan  August 2014 report by MDOT explains the economic benefit bicycling has on Michigan’s local and statewide economies.

Complete Streets: Fact-Based Resources  Compendium of definitions, plus related safety and place making information; links to many sources and citations; three pages.

Costs for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Infrastructure Improvements   Report dated October 2013 by FHWA and University of North Carolina.  Link is to summary of comments by the report editors; follow link at the top of the page for full report.  Cited by many other web sites.

County of Kalamazoo Detailed Profile  A detailed profile of Kalamazoo County that includes mode of transportation data for commuters, by car, bicycle and walking (among a host of other information).  Can search database for other cities and counties, etc.   From

County of Van Buren Detailed Profile  A detailed profile of Van Buren County that includes mode of transportation data for commuters, by car, bicycle and walking (among a host of other information).  Can search database for other cities and counties, etc.   From

Cycling – Health Benefits  Summary of health benefits related to bicycling.  Presents many useful statistics.

Economic Benefits of Bicycle Infrastructure Investments   From AARP; summary of benefits with link to full report.

Estimating the Cost of Unintentional Injuries, 2015 (Fatal and Nonfatal)  National Safety Council estimates of variety of traffic (and other) injuries.  Costs used by engineers to estimate the time of return on various road safety improvements.  From the report: “The calculable costs of motor-vehicle crashes are wage and productivity losses, medical expenses, administrative expenses, motor vehicle damage, and employers’ uninsured costs. (See the definitions on the reverse for a description of what is included in each component.) The costs of all these items for each death (not each fatal crash) … were: $1,542,000 …”

Michigan Traffic Crash Facts  Searchable database of state, county and local information.  Scroll through the page to find information of interest or use the query tool.  When making comparisons trends are often greatly skewed by the choice of of start/end periods.

Michigan Traffic Crash Facts – Bicycles 2018  Summary of bicycle related crash facts in Michigan for 2018.

List of U.S. Cities With Most Bicycle Commuters  Wikipedia article; contains an extract of the more detailed report on bicycle commuting by the American League of Bicyclists covering cities of 65,000 population or greater.

MTOT-Safety Program  Links to MDOT’s current Time of Return (TOR) Calculation Spreadsheet, used by engineers to calculate the time it takes to pay back a variety of road safety measures (e.g., traffic signals and widened shoulders).

National Complete Streets Coalition Fact Sheets  Series of fact sheets exploring the many benefits of Complete Streets, including for various types of users, public health, and safety.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration  Extensive set of safety related links.

Nearly Killed Me  An emerging project with two key goals: To demonstrate the reality of dangerous driving behavior and to further technology for citizen reporting of traffic safety hazards and near misses.  Report traffic near misses or hazardous conditions and your incident will be added to the map.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center  National clearinghouse of safety, health, transportation, environmental, energy, economic and quality of life information funded by USDOT.  Browse site for state-based resources, to find or submit bike maps, benefits of bicycling and extensive additional resources such as crash statistics.

People for Bikes  Extensive library of facts and statistics on bicycling and its benefits.

Protected Bike Lanes in NYC  Results of NYC Dept. of Transportation three year study include: total injuries dropped 20%; vehicle travel times improved overall; retail sales improved vs. comparison areas; crossing distances along corridor reduced by 17-30 feet.

Reasons for Paved Highway Shoulders  These 22 reasons are what AASHTO has to say about the benefits of paved shoulders in three important areas: safety, capacity and maintenance.  By frequency of use, motorists and taxpayers are the primary beneficiary of paved shoulders.

Roundabouts & Bicycle Facility Design – Selected Resources  Compendium of basic design considerations, including key factors related to safety and bicycling “how to” information; links to many sources and citations; six pages.

Sharing the Road: Optimizing Pedestrian Safety and Vehicle Mobility  Recommendations for improving the multimodal transportation network of the Michigan Department of Transportation through the use of practices, guidelines and policies; April 2012.

Survey of North American Bicycle Commuters – Design and Aggregate Results  William E Moritz, Transportation Research Record 1578, Paper 970979, pp. 91-101 (2003).  Moritz is often cited by MDOT and other authorities as a basis for non-motorized safety recommendations.

Where We Ride: Analysis of Bicycling in America’s Cities  Data-based review of bicycle commuting by state, city, and a number of other dimensions; 2012 analysis based on Census Bureau data for cities of 65,000 population or greater.